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Child Development Theories – Down’s Syndrome and Autism

id=”mod_37462243″>Child development theory is a demanding and competitive area driven by a need understand the exact nature of the developing child. Traditional medical models of understanding and intervention are in stark contrast to more recent psychological models initiating the debate over which model is of most value and how best to meet the developing needs of your child.

The journey from birth, through infancy and onto adulthood is by no means a smooth one and can be challenged by many factors. Two such examples are that of Down’s syndrome and autism.

Medical Model 카지노사이트 | 바카라사이트 | 카지노사이트주소 | 바카라사이트주소 | 카지노사이트쿠폰 | 바카라사이트쿠폰 Source Medical Models of Intervention in Child Development

History shows a medical model of understanding and intervention has held dominance in the past. This approach views difficulties experienced by a child to be that of ‘disease’ and should be treated in the same respect.

A clear route of investigation, diagnosis, treatment to cure is employed by fully trained medical professionals with little or no reference to social interactions or circumstance. Moreover, intervention is entirely focussed on the child and treatment given to that child.

Psychological Models of Intervention

The more recent development of a psychological model of intervention is concerned with psychosocial factors such as relationships with parents and siblings and environmental factors such as the circumstances the child is living in.

Intervention follows a more explorative route taking time over assessments and aiming to achieve a favourable ‘outcome’ rather than a ‘cure’. The psychological model is also particularly concerned with intellectual development which is a topical starting point for this debate.

Intellectual Development in Children

The definition of intellectual impairment depends very much upon which approach is used. The medical model approach views this as intelligence that is measured by standardised methods, i.e. IQ tests. Intelligence is assessed and when scores are lower than a certain level or where a diagnosis has been made regarding lower than what is considered ‘normal’ intelligence, intervention is usually activated.

Your child learns as the play and explore the world around them 카지노사이트 | 바카라사이트 | 카지노사이트주소 | 바카라사이트주소 | 카지노사이트쿠폰 | 바카라사이트쿠폰 Source A psychological model defines intellectual ability as what is different from the majority. Overall the level of intelligence that has been labelled ‘normal’ is of crucial significance and is used as a baseline.

Children’s intelligence is generally not measured by standardised means but often children are grouped into categories with others of similar ability. They are then labelled with a term which is considered appropriate by society at that particular time.

Differences in ability such as this has created several explanations. Three in particular were identified by Zigler and Balla (1982);

1) deficit in that a process is missing and clear brain dysfunction is present,

2) delay in that a child’s development is delayed and,

3) difference where a child is operating in different ways to others.

Both the delay and difference models refer to children who have no brain dysfunction but do have some form of intellectual impairment. All three models have recently been applied to the development of children with Down’s syndrome and autism.

Chromosomes 카지노사이트 | 바카라사이트 | 카지노사이트주소 | 바카라사이트주소 | 카지노사이트쿠폰 | 바카라사이트쿠폰 Source Down’s Syndrome

Down’s syndrome is a genetic chromosomal disorder which can be detected prenatally, however identification often occurs shortly after birth where abnormalities can be tested for.

Children who have Down’s syndrome take longer to process visual information than others and also process tactile information differently. A common intervention method at the present time in the UK is that of Portage.

This is a medical model of intervention that focuses solely on the child and uses standardised methods of treatment. Designed in the US, Portage is a method involving a key worker who, using a developmental checklist, works with the child and the carer to set developmental targets over a set period time, including when to work on a particular skill and how to go about it.

This process is repeated with each visit with the aim to encourage development to the standard of a ‘normal’ child on which the checklists are based upon.

Building Blocks in Child Development | Source The Portage method has been praised by parents and carers, however it is difficult to pinpoint whether it actually has any long term benefits for the child.

This kind of intervention follows a traditional route where a difficulty is identified and a treatment is employed.

Other factors such as parenting and social interaction are not considered and not incorporated into the intervention programme. These points highlight the areas in which a medical model of intervention such as Portage may not consider, and areas in which many researchers feel are too significant to ignore.


The criticism of the Portage method is the basis in which the developmental checklists, in which this method relies on, are created. They are centred on the developmental stages and milestones of a ‘normal’ child and may not be the most effective way of improving the development of a child with Down’s syndrome.

Down’s Syndrome Information

Some researchers claim children with Down’s syndrome follow the same path of development as non-Downs syndrome children but their development is delayed (Dunst and Trivette 1990). Whereas others disagree, and believe a delay model cannot explain the many differences in which these children display (Morss, 1985).

Which model is applied to conditions such as Down’s syndrome determines which model of intervention is favoured. Despite disagreements amongst researchers on this issue it is becoming increasingly apparent that a psychological model of intervention may be a more effective method to improve development in such children.

Many researchers such as Wishart (1990) are pushing for an intervention model which is designed specifically to the child and that is in line with the understanding of conditions like Down’s syndrome and how they develop. In particular this involves recognising that such children are developing in different ways rather than having just delayed development.

These more recent opinions are also reflected in other conditions. One such example is that of autism.


Autism was originally identified by Kanner in 1943 as being a condition of innate causes where children display an inability to relate to or hold relationships with others. It is condition often undetected until early infancy when a child’s behaviour becomes a concern when it does not fit with the ‘norm’.

Autism causes impairments in social, communicative and imaginative functioning and research suggests it has biological origins. This has lead to a medical model of intervention where similarly to Down’s syndrome, intervention is based around a standardised education programme which uses the ‘normal’ development route as a base.

Autism is now recognised as a lifelong condition where behaviour and skills can be improved but autistic behaviours will be present throughout life.

Causes of Autism

The causes of Autism are under great debate centred on the key questions of whether it is a condition caused by environmental factors or by factors from within the child. Consequently, which approach is taken towards the cause will greatly influence the method of intervention undertaken.

Further to Kanner’s early claims, research has suggested Autism is not caused by innate factors but autistic behaviours are in fact symptoms of delayed personality development. Significantly, 카지노사이트 | 바카라사이트 | 카지노사이트주소 | 바카라사이트주소 | 카지노사이트쿠폰 | 바카라사이트쿠폰 Kanner himself altered his view in later years and highlighted environmental factors, education and parenting as equally influential in the causes of autism.

Bettelheim (1967) was strongly against innate causes and believed if parenting was erratic and a child was not cared for correctly in infancy they would not develop a mature personality due to a lack of social interactions and begin to show autistic behaviours. Further, he favoured a psychological model of intervention.

Support for a psychological method of intervention can also be seen in the techniques of Niko and Elizabeth Tinbergen in the 1970’s. They suggested an emotional and motivational imbalance in a child may be the cause for autistic behaviour (Chance, 1985). They believed that this in turn causes autistic children to find strong emotions overwhelming, causing them to become withdrawn, often from people and surroundings they are familiar with. They suggested a technique called ‘holding therapy’ designed to strengthen the mother-child bond.

Source Is Autism Genetic?

Morton (1989) suggests autism has a genetic basis. Studies conducted have suggested abnormal brain functioning may be a significant factor.

For example, links have been found between autism, infantile spasms and epilepsy pointing at brain stem and temporal lobe dysfunction. Furthermore, neurochemical studies have shown a difference in the brain functioning of autism suffers in comparison with non autism sufferers.

Variable expressivity has been suggested as a possible factor in autism where a parent or a sibling of an autistic child may have a cognitive impairment, providing further support for a genetic basis.

Early intervention in autism is often centred around management of the behavioural and communication difficulties experienced. Programmes based on operant conditioning are common and are often employed through special schools and education programmes designed for children with conditions such as autism.


Examples such as Down’s syndrome and autism serve as illustrators to the current theory, research and methods that are in place.

The current debate centres on whether these conditions are due to a delay in development or a complete difference in the way development proceeds. More recent research appears to be pointing towards a difference model rather than a delay model, certainly in the cases of autism and Downs syndrome which has strong implications for intervention.

Overall it can be said that modern research is providing increasing evidence, adding to this debate all the time. Embracing social factors such as parenting and social interactions alongside the child’s personal difficulties may provide a more efficient and positive intervention method which can only be improved upon in time as research grows.

More from PsychGeek

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The cognitive theory of emotion is a rapidly advancing area in psychology research.


Bettelheim, B. (1967). Empty fortress. Simon and Schuster.

Chance, M. R. A. (1985). ” Autistic” Children: New Hope for a Cure By Niko Tinbergen and Elizabeth A. Tinbergen (review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 28(4), 636-638.

Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1990). Assessment of social support in early intervention programs.

Faulkner, D and Lewis, V. (1995) ‘Psychological Intervention: Down’s Syndrome and Autism’ in Bancroft, D and Carr, V. (1995) ‘Influencing Children’s Development’, Oxford, The Open University/Blackwell

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child,2(3), 217-250.

Morss, J. R. (1985). Early cognitive development: Difference or delay. Current approaches to Down’s syndrome, 242-259.

Morton, J. (1989). The origins of autism. New Scientist, 124, 44-47.

Wishart, J. G., & Duffy, L. (1990). Instability of performance on cognitive tests in infants and young children with Down’s syndrome. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(1), 10-22.

Zigler, E., & Balla, D. (1982). Motivational and personality factors in the performance of the retarded. Mental retardation: The developmental-difference controversy, 9-26.

© 2014 Fiona Guy


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sendingAUTHORFiona Guy

5 years ago from UK

It certainly is a challenging area and everybody wants the best for their child. The parents role is really very important and such a responsibility for any individual. Thank you Stewart for reading and sharing your thoughts!

Stewart Guy

5 years ago

This is an excellent hub, voted up; and a very challenging area for the medical profession as well as for parents of a child or children with either Downs Syndrome or Autism. Let us all hope that further research can answer some of the questions on the best way to help the children who have these conditions and the parents to better understand that they play a crucial role in a child’s development from the day the are born!


5 years ago from UK

Thank you DDE! I totally agree, those early years for learning and development are so very important for children and I do wish more parents would take that on board!

Devika Primić

5 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

incredible! Child development is crucial and very important for all parents to pay attention to. A useful hub and I voted up!

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How to start a letter – Examples of opening sentences and salutation

id=”mod_19978148″>Here you can read how start a letter in English. One of the most important things of writing letters, whether they are business letters or informal letters, is to open correctly and appropriately. In this article I will provide you with example sentences of how to begin or start business letters and informal letters in English. This article is mainly meant to help out foreigners trying to write letters in the Englis language.

When applying these examples you can be confident to leave a professional or appriopriate impression.

How to address the recipient

Here is where it all begins, 카지노사이트총판 and it is crucial that you get this right. Addressing someone incorrectly will put a negative shadow over the remainder of your letter. Whether it concerns the start of a Business letter or an informal letter, there are a few things that you should know.

In a formal business letter

Firstly, in English letters one does not put a dot ( . ) behind Mr. and Dr. etc., but in American letter one does. Secondly, married women should be addressed with Mrs. Unmarried women should be addressed with Miss. If you are not sure about whether someone is married that you can use Ms.

Possible forms of addressing someone: Mr, Dr, Mrs, Miss, Ms,

Also be aware that academic titles will be different from country to country.

In a personal informal letter

Here it is also important to consider how to address the recipient. Seeing that you most likely know the person, it would be awkward to use the neutral Ms. Usually it is ok to simply use the persons first name. When it is an older person or something that you do not know very well it is also find to simply stick to the more formal Mr. etc.

Salutation – Opening greetings

When you start a business letter in English the first thing you should decide on is how to phrase your salutation or greetings. As you can imagine, there is a large difference between the beginning of a business letter in comparision to the opening of an informal letter. Here are examples of how to start an english letter when it comes to the salutation of both forms of letters.

The salutation in an English business letter

When you know the name or the title of the recipient you should always incorporate this in the salutation.

Dear Mr. Black,

Dear Professor Snape,

Dear Dr. White,

Dear Jimmy Connor,

Dear Ms. Jones,

If you do not know the name:

Dear Sir / Madam,

When it concerns an abstract person or persons, 카지노총판 you can use the following salutations:

Dear Resident,

Dear All,

Dear Children,

Dear Customer,

The salutation in an English informal letter

Dear Brother,

Hi David,

Dear Mr. Black,

Dear Dr, Johson,

Dear David,

Examples of good start/opening sentences

In the first paragraph you usually introduce the topic of the letter. In English and American letters people also often start the letter with social niceties. Some good opening sentences you could use:

How to start a business letter in English – Examples:

Thank you for your letter regarding the

With reference to your letter of 20 December, we

We are writing in response to

I am writing to enquire about

In reply to your letter of…, we

How to start an informal letter in English – Examples

How are you?

How have you been?

How is life treating you?

How are the kids?

I hope you are doing well.

Hopefully this will help you out on starting a letter in English.


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These are your best, most secure VPN options

id=”article-body” class=”row” section=”article-body”> Welcome to the CNET 2020 Directory of VPN providers. In this directory, we’re taking a look at a few of the very best commercial VPN service providers on the internet like ExpressVPN, CyberGhost, IPVanish, Hotspot Shield, Private Internet Access and others. Rather than looking at the wide range of free providers, which often have a lot of limits (and dubious loyalties), we’re looking at those vendors that charge a few bucks a month but put your interests first — instead of those of shadowy advertisers and sponsors. We’ve looked at more than 20 factors, including number of server locations, client software, dedicated and dynamic IP, bandwidth caps, security, logging, customer support and price.   

Read more: Best mobile VPNs: Android and iPhone VPNs compared | Best internet providers | The best web hosting providers

Let’s look at each of our vendors below in a little more depth. Keep in mind that this is an evolving list: We’re actively working on more testing and research, and expect this list to change throughout the year.

Editors’ note, November 1: The NordVPN entry on this list has been updated to reflect the security issue that was disclosed by that vendor in October 2019.

ExpressVPN ExpressVPN

Number of IP addresses: 30,000

Number of servers: 3,000+

Number of server locations: 160

Number of simultaneous connections: 5

Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands

94+ countries

3 months Free with 1-year plan

Read our ExpressVPN review

ExpressVPN consistently proves itself one of the fastest VPNs on the market, and actively promotes their commitment to privacy. The company tells us their network is powered by TrustedServer technology, which ExpressVPN built to ensure that there are never any logs of users’ online activities. 

We like the quality of their setup guides, and the detailed information in their FAQ. The ExpressVPN gained points from us for their support of Bitcoin as a payment method. The company offers a useful kill switch feature which prevents network data from leaking outside of their secure VPN tunnel in the event the VPN connection fails. 

The company has been in business since 2009, and has a substantial network of fast VPN servers spread across 94 countries. Their best plan is priced at just $6.67 per month for an annual package which includes 3 months free. 

Read more: ExpressVPN review: A VPN speed leader with a secure reputation

See all ExpressVPN plans IPVanish IPVanish VPN

Number of IP addresses: 40,000+

Number of servers: 1,300

Number of server locations: 60

Number of simultaneous connections: 10

Country/Jurisdiction: United States

$3.99/month and $48 for a year

A big win for IPVanish is its fun, configurable interface which makes it an ideal client for those who are interested in learning how to understand what a VPN does under the hood. Its multi-platform flexibility is also ideal for people focused on finding a Netflix-friendly VPN. 

A unique feature of IPVanish, and one we’re very intrigued by, is the VPN’s support of Kodi, the open-source media streaming app that was once known as XBMC. Any serious media fan has used or built Kodi or XBMC into a media player, and the integrated IPVanish Kodi plugin provides access to media worldwide.

At $3.99/month and $48 for a year, they’re obviously trying to move you towards their yearly program. We’re a little disappointed that they only allow a 7-day trial, rather than a full 30-days, but they do offer a full money-back guarantee. That said, the company gets kudos for their recent increase from five to now ten simultaneous connections. We also liked their connection kill switch feature, a must for anyone serious about remaining anonymous while surfing. 

See all IPVanish VPN plans Symantec Norton Secure VPN

Number of countries: 29

Number of servers: 1500

Number of server locations: 200

Country/Jurisdiction: US

$39.99 for the first 12 months

Symantec, long known for excellence in security products, has a relatively limited offering in its VPN product. It does not support P2P or BitTorrent, it does not have a kill switch feature, and it does not support Linux, routers or set top boxes.

On the other hand, it’s a VPN product from Symantec, a publicly-traded company with a clearly documented management team. In most software categories, this might not be a notable advantage, but in the VPN world, where most companies have shadowy management and impossible-to-track-down ownership structures, it’s refreshing to know exactly who we’re dealing with and know through independent sources (the company’s annual filing, the SEC, and analyst reports) that the company is trustworthy and accountable.

Norton Secure VPN also gets big points for its 24/7 live customer phone support and 60-day money back guarantee.

See all Norton Secure VPN plans NordVPN NordVPN

Number of IP addresses: 5,000

Number of servers: 5,200+ servers

Number of server locations: 62

Country/Jurisdiction: Panama

62 countries

$3.49/month (75% discount) for a 3-year plan

Read our NordVPN in-depth review and hands-on testing

NordVPN in-depth review and hands-on testing (ZDNet)

NordVPN is one of the most recognized brands in the VPN field. It offers a generous simultaneous connection count, with six simultaneous connections through their network, where nearly all other providers offer five or fewer. NordVPN also offers a dedicated IP option, for those looking for a different level of VPN connection. NordVPN also offers a kill switch feature, and the ability to VPN into Tor. We detected no privacy leaks during our tests, and found its speeds to be reliably fast. 

The company’s 1-year subscription plan costs is for $6.99/month ($83.88 billed at once). While that yearly price is lower than most other contenders, the month-to-month price of $11.95 is at the high end of the spectrum. As of September 16, 2019, the company’s other pricing tiers have crept up a bit: It’s now $3.49/month for a 3-year plan (or $125.64 total), up from $2.99/$107.55. And the 2-year plan is now $4.99/month ($119.76), up from $3.99/$95.75. And yes, it also has a full 30-day refund policy. 

While NordVPN has lived on this list for a long time, we moved it to the penalty box in October 2019 to re-evaluate our recommendation after a report emerged that one of its rented servers was accessed without authorization in 2018. Nord’s actions following the discovery included — eventually — multiple security audits, a bug bounty program and heavier investments in server security. 

While we’d have preferred that Nord self-disclosed the issue much earlier, the fact that the breach was very limited in nature and involved no user-identifying information served to further verify that NordVPN keeps no logs of user activity. As a result, Nord remains on this list as a recommended vendor. 

Read more: NordVPN review: Still the best value for security and speed

See all NordVPN plans Surfshark Surfshark

Number of servers: 800+

Number of server locations: 50

Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands

While Surfshark’s network is smaller than some, they make it up on features. Let’s start off with the biggest win they offer: unlimited device support. If you want to run your entire home or office on Surfshark’s VPN, you don’t have to worry about how many devices you have on or connected. They also offer anti-malware, ad blocking and tracker blocking as part of their software.

Surfshark received generally high marks when its Chrome and Firefox extensions were audited for privacy by German security firm Pure53 (PDF link of full report) — though that audit was commissioned by Surfshark.

The company has a solid range of app support, running on Mac, Windows, iOS, Android, FireTV and routers. Additional devices like game consoles can be configured for Surfshark via DNS settings. We particularly like the feature that allows you to whitelist certain apps and websites to automatically bypass the VPN. For some business use, this can be critically important.

Surfshark also offers three special modes designed for those who want to get around restrictions and more carefully hide their online footsteps. Camouflage Mode masks your VPN activity so your ISP doesn’t know you’re using a VPN. MultiHop jumps your connection through multiple countries to hide your trail. Finally, NoBorders Mode “allows [you] to successfully use Surfshark in restrictive regions.” Just be careful. Doing any of these three things could be illegal in your country and could result in very severe penalties.

For a year plan, Surfshark comes in very close to many of the other full-featured VPN providers, at $71.88 for the first year. Be careful, because it looks like that will jump to $143.40 after your first year is up. Month-by-month plans are $11.95. Their best offer is $1.99 a month, for their 24 month plan (you pay $47.76 up front). Definitely take advantage of their generous 30-day trial to decide if you like this service (and maybe set a reminder in 23 months to see if you can talk them into a continued discount rate).

See all Surfshark plans PureVPN PureVPN

Number of IP addresses: 300,000

Number of servers: 2000

Number of server locations: 180

Country/Jurisdiction: Hong Kong

$3.33/month for a 1-year plan, $1.65/month for a 5-year plan

PureVPN does not log connection information. The company joined the “no log” movement in 2018, which was recently verified via a third-party audit by Althius IT (albeit one commissioned and paid for by PureVPN). 

We like that PureVPN offer a 31-day refund policy and supports Bitcoin payments, to further extend anonymous browsing. We also like that PureVPN has both Kodi and a Chromebook solutions available. In addition, PureVPN was the first VPN service we noted to fully implement the GDPR.

See all PureVPN plans

StrongVPN StrongVPN

Number of IP addresses: 59,500

Number of servers: 650+

Number of server locations: 26 countries and 46 cities

$5.83/month (42% discount) for a 1-year plan

StrongVPN in-depth review and hands-on testing

StrongVPN blasts onto our favorites list with excellent infrastructure and decent price performance. As with our other favorites, StrongVPN has a strong no-logging policy. Since VPN is all about protecting your privacy, that’s a place the savvy VPN providers can pick up points.

Strong also picks up kudos for its large base of IP addresses, which also helps protect your anonymity. They have a solid collection of servers and worldwide locations. For those of you who need a dedicated IP, you can get one from the company, but you’ll need to contact support to get help setting it up.

One of StrongVPN’s strongest strengths is the company’s network. They own and operate their entire network infrastructure, which means they have no externally-dictated limits on bandwidth or the type of traffic allowed on the network. This gives you the confidence that you’ll be able to power through your work.

StrongVPN’s regular monthly price of $10 is in the middle of the pack, but their yearly price of $69.99 is among the lowest of our contenders. 

See all StrongVPN plans

CyberGhost CyberGhost VPN

Number of servers: over 6,100 worldwide in 90+ countries

Number of server locations: 112

45-day money back guarantee

24/7 support response

$2.75/month for a 3-year plan, or $3.69/month for 2-year plan 

CyberGhost in-depth review and hands-on testing    

CyberGhost has been around since 2011 and has come out strongly as a supporter of “civil rights, a free society, and an uncensored Internet culture.” We really liked how the company specifically showcases, on their Web site, how folks normally prevented from accessing such important services as Facebook and YouTube can bring those services into their lives via a VPN.

The company has solid Linux support, supports VPN via routers, and has a solution for the popular Kodi media player. They check off all the boxes on protocol support and get kudos for offering a connection kill switch feature, along with supporting P2P and BitTorrent in most countries. Plus, they allow you to use seven devices at once with their service.

Still, the few extra dollars are worth it. We liked how the company offers custom app protection, IPV5 support and DNS, IP, and WebRTC leak prevention. CyberGhost also picked up points for preserving anonymity by not logging connection data.

See all CyberGhost VPN plans

Private Internet Access Private Internet Access

Number of IP addresses: N/A

Number of servers: 3,252

Number of server locations: 37

Country/Jurisdiction: United States

Speaking of price, if you want a solid VPN provider, Private Internet Access is the place to go. 

The key to getting the most savings with this vendor is buying their two year plan for $83.87. That works out to $3.49 per month. They also offer a one-year plan for $71.88, but as you can see, you can get an entire additional year for less than ten bucks if you sign up for their two-year plan.

The company does not release information on the number of IP addresses available, but at 3,252, their server count is more than any of our other picks.

These folks have been around since 2010, and don’t log anything. They provide a generous five connections, a connection kill switch feature, and some good online documentation and security guidance. Our one disappointment is that their refund policy is 7-days instead of 30, but you can certainly get a feel for their excellent performance in the space of a week.

See all Private Internet Access plans HotSpot Shield Hotspot Shield

Number of IP addresses: 50,000

Number of servers: 3,200

Number of server countries: 투데이서버 80+

$2.99/month for a 3-year plan

Hotspot Shield in-depth review and hands-on testing   

HotSpot Shield is a product that has had some ups and downs in terms of our editorial coverage. Back in 2016, they picked up some very positive coverage based on founder David Gorodyansky comments about protecting user privacy. Then, 리니지프리서버홍보 in 2017, a privacy group accused the company of spying on user traffic, an accusation the company flatly denies. Finally, just this year, ZDNet uncovered a flaw in the company’s software that exposed users. Fortunately, that was fixed immediately.

So what are we to make of HotSpot Shield? Frankly, the controversy caused us to drop them from our directory for a while. But they approached us, made a strong case for their ongoing dedication to privacy, and we decided to give them another chance.

Here’s the good news. They offer one of the best money-back guarantee we’ve seen for VPN services, a full 45-days. They support Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android, along with plugins for Chrome and Firefox. They also support routers and media players (but not Linux). And, as a bonus, they have a connection kill switch feature.

The company does not support P2P or BitTorrent – and they also don’t support the OpenVPN. Every other vendor does, but HotSpot Shield limits its protocol support to L2TP/IPSec and something they call Hydra, an enhancement of the transport protocol.

Overall, the company did impress us with their attention to privacy. They have a published privacy canary. They also told us, “We have built in malware, phishing and spam protection. Our commitment to our users is that Hotspot Shield will never store, log, or share your true IP address.”

See all Hotspot Shield plans

Other VPN service Providers

Goose VPN

I had to know why Goose VPN was so named. My first order of business was to reach out to the company’s co-founder and ask. Geese, I was told, make excellent guard animals. There are records of guard geese giving the alarm in ancient Rome when the Gauls attacked. Geese have been used to guard a US Air Defense Command base in Germany and a brewery in Scotland.

It’s clear that the goose is an ideal mascot for a service that’s meant to guard your digital communications. And so, we have Goose VPN.

Goose VPN has a couple of standout features. First, you can have an unlimited number of simultaneous connections (or devices) using the VPN at once. Second, if your bandwidth needs are 50 GB or less per month, you can sign up for $2.99/month, the cheapest monthly rate we’ve seen.

If you want unlimited bandwidth, the company definitely is pushing you towards buying a year at a time. Their monthly fee for unlimited bandwidth is a middle-of-the-road $12.99/month, but if you spend $59.88 for a year’s service, you’ll find it’s the second lowest by-the-year price of the services we’ve reviewed.

Goose provides all the usual clients, including iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows, and adds support for routers, Android TV, and Linux. They are working on a kill switch feature, which may even be up and 리니지프리서버추천 running by the time you read this review. The company also offers 24/7 ticket-based support.

Ducks quack, geese honk, and swans whoop (we know, because we looked it up). Overall, especially given the unlimited connections and low yearly price, we think Goose VPN is something to honk about. 

VyprVPN Services

Number of IP addresses: 200,000+

Number of servers: 700+

Number of server locations: 70+

Country/Jurisdiction: Switzerland

30-Day Money Back Guarantee

VyprVPN has the largest bank of IP addresses of any of the services we’ve examined. The company offers a wide range of protocols, including its own high-performance Chameleon connection protocol.

We like that the company offers a connection kill switch feature and, for those who need it, there’s an option to get a dedicated IP address. VyprVPN is a standout in their effort to provide privacy, and thwart censorship. When China began its program of deep packet VPN inspection, Golden Frog’s VyperVPN service added scrambled OpenVPN packets to keep the traffic flowing. 

The company offers three plans: two years for $60, one year for $45, or monthly at $12.95. Clearly, the company’s two year offering is the sweet spot.

Buffered VPN

Number of IP addresses: 11,000

Number of servers: 800

Number of server locations: 46

Country/Jurisdiction: Gibraltar

Buffered VPN doesn’t disclose much about the size of its network, but the 30-day money back guarantee means that you can take their service for a test drive and really get a feel for how well it performs for you. The company saddened us because they do keep some connection information. They cheered us up, though, due to their client support, unlimited bandwidth, and generous number of simultaneous sessions allowed.

The company is relatively new, founded in 2013. It’s based in Europe, so those who prefer an EU-based company might prefer Buffered. We like how Buffered has made a strong commitment to Internet freedom, and an equally strong commitment to providing quality customer support.

At $12.99 per month and $79.00 for a year of service, they don’t offer the least expensive plan, but we do recommend giving them a try.

Hide My Ass

Number of IP addresses: 3,106

Number of servers: 830

Number of server locations: 280

Country/Jurisdiction: United Kingdom

$2.99/month for 3-year plan

We have to give these folks an extra shout-out just for the name of their service. The firm has a strong network with a good selection of protocols supported. While they have an extensive (and very clearly written set of policy documents), the company explicitly allows P2P and torrents.

We like how HMA offers support on a wide range of devices including game consoles. We gave them kudos for bitcoin support, and their excellent money-back guarantee. They did make us frown a bit because they do log connection data. They also offer five simultaneous connections.

While their monthly pricing of $11.52 is at the high end of the spectrum, their yearly pricing is competitive at $83.88 for a full year.

Webroot WiFi Security

Country/Jurisdiction: United States

Starting price: $39.99

As VPN services go, Webroot WiFi Security is relatively bare-bones — but it’s also cheap. Starting at $39.99 for a year of VPN service, you can get a bundle with both VPN and Webroot’s antivirus software for $69.98 for your first year. Unfortunately, both of these prices bump up after the first year. VPN protection jumps to $59.99 and the bundle jumps to $119.98.

While we applaud the combination of VPN and antivirus in one package, Webroot has had a troubled few years. In 2017, it mistakenly flagged Windows’ system files as malicious. In 2018, a kernel exploit was found in the company’s Mac antivirus client. In 2019, the company was acquired by backup firm Carbonite.

If you’re only protecting a few devices and want to save money, Webroot’s VPN might be for you. That $39.99 price is for up to three devices. If you want to protect five devices, you’ll need to pay $59.99 for a year and $79.99 after that. Frankly, once you enter that price range, there are products with more capabilities available.

Webroot’s VPN is also light on protocols. While they do connect using IKEv2 by default, they also offer L2TP and the very old and very insecure PPTP protocol (although they do warn that it’s not “as” secure. Another concern for those of you who need deep protection is that the company does log both which VPN server location you connect to and the country you connect from.

So who is Webroot’s VPN for? If all you want to do is protect your Wi-Fi connection while surfing in your local coffee shop or at a hotel, you only need to connect a few devices, and you want to save money, this is a workable option. But if you’re in need of a serious VPN with deep capabilities, you’ll want to look elsewhere in this directory. Also, we didn’t find any reference to a money back guarantee, so check with their pre-sales and support before buying.


Since we’re living in a connected world, security and privacy are critical to ensure our personal safety from nefarious hacks. From online banking to communicating with coworkers on a daily basis, we’re now frequently transferring data on our computers and smartphones. It’s extremely important to find ways of securing our digital life and for this reason, VPNs have become increasingly common.

What Is a VPN?

A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that allows you to create a secure connection over a less-secure network between your computer and the internet. It protects your privacy by allowing you to anonymously appear to be anywhere you choose.

A VPN is beneficial because it guarantees an appropriate level of security and privacy to the connected systems. This is extremely useful when the existing network infrastructure alone cannot support it.

For example, when your computer is connected to a VPN, the computer acts as if it’s also on the same network as the VPN. All of your online traffic is transferred over a secure connection to the VPN. The computer will then behave as if it’s on that network, allowing you to securely gain access to local network resources. Regardless of your location, you’ll be given permission to use the internet as if you were present at the VPN’s location. This can be extremely beneficial for individuals using a public Wi-Fi.

Therefore, when you browse the internet while on a VPN, your computer will contact the website through an encrypted VPN service connection. The VPN will then forward the request for you and forward the response from the website back through a secure connection.

VPNs are really easy to use, and they’re considered to be highly effective tools. They can be used to do a wide range of things. The most popular types of VPNs are remote-access VPNs and site-to-site VPNs.

What is a remote-access VPN?

A remote-access VPN uses public infrastructure like the internet to provide remote users secure access to their network. This is particularly important for organizations and their corporate networks. It’s crucial when employees connect to a public hotspot and use the internet for sending work-related emails. A VPN client, on the user’s computer or mobile device connects to a VPN gateway on the company’s network. This gateway will typically require the device to authenticate its identity. It will then create a network link back to the device that allows it to reach internal network resources such as file servers, printers and intranets, as if it were on the same local network.

It usually relies on either Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to secure the connection. However, SSL VPNs can also be used to supply secure access to a single application, rather than an entire internal network. Some VPNs also provide Layer 2 access to the target network; these will require a tunneling protocol like PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) or L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) running across the base IPsec connection.

What is a site-to-site VPN?

This is when the VPN uses a gateway device to connect to the entire network in one location to a network in another location. The majority of site-to-site VPNs that connect over the internet use IPsec. Rather than using the public internet, it is also normal to use career multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) clouds as the main transport for site-to-site VPNs.

VPNs are often defined between specific computers, and in most cases, they are servers in separate data centers. However, new hybrid-access situations have now transformed the VPN gateway in the cloud, typically with a secure link from the cloud service provider into the internal network.

What is a mobile VPN?

A traditional VPN can affect the user experience when applied to wireless devices. It’s best to use a mobile VPN to avoid slower speeds and data loss. A mobile VPN offers you a high level of security for the challenges of wireless communication. It can provide mobile devices with secure access to network resources and software applications on their wireless networks. It’s good to use when you’re facing coverage gaps, inter-network roaming, bandwidth issues, or limited battery life, memory or processing power.

Mobile VPNs are designed and optimized to ensure a seamless user experience when devices are switching networks or moving out of coverage. It generally has a smaller memory footprint, and because of that, it also requires less processing power than a traditional VPN. Therefore, it enables your applications to run faster while the battery pack is able to last longer.

A Mobile VPN is a worthwhile tool to have since it increases privacy, user satisfaction and productivity, while also reducing unforeseen support issues caused by wireless connectivity problems. The increasing usage of mobile devices and wireless connectivity make it more important to ensure that your data is being transferred through a secure network. It will allow you to access the internet, while staying safe behind a firewall that protects your privileged information.

Who needs a VPN?

Individuals that access the internet from a computer, tablet or smartphone will benefit from using a VPN. A VPN service will always boost your security by encrypting and anonymizing all of your online activity. Therefore, both private and business users can benefit from using a VPN. Communications that happen between the VPN server and your device are encrypted, so a hacker or website spying on you wouldn’t know which web pages you access. They also won’t be able to see private information like passwords, usernames and bank or shopping details and so on. Anyone that wants to protect their privacy and security online should use a VPN.

How to choose a VPN Service?

There’s a vast range of VPN servers on the internet. Some are free, but the best ones require a monthly subscription. Before you decide to download a VPN, make sure you consider these factors for understanding a VPN:

Cost – VPNs aren’t too pricey, but they vary from vendor to vendor. If your main concern is price, 리니지프리서버추천 then go with something inexpensive, or free – like Spotflux Premium VPN or AnchorFree HotSpot Shield Elite. By all means, try a free server but they do have a few drawbacks since they attract a lot of users. Free servers are often slower, and since most are ad-supported, they place adverts on the online pages you access. Others can even limit the speed of your connection, as well as your online time or amount of data transferred.

It’s also important to note that leading VPN providers offer stronger security features to ensure you’re digitally safe. When selecting a paid VPN service, always be sure to check which countries it operates servers in.

Reliability – Select a VPN that is reliable and 리니지 read the reviews to make sure that it’s capable of protecting you by providing you with sufficient online privacy.

High security – An effective VPN will have the following security features: 128-bit encryption, anonymous DNS servers and 우아미서버 an absence of connection logs.

Are there any bandwidth limits? This can often be linked to price; paying more will generally provide more bandwidth with faster internet access.

Are apps for Android, iOS phones and tablets available? Apps for Android and iOS devices are also vulnerable, so make sure your VPN server can support them.

To ensure privacy, you want to make sure you have a VPN that doesn’t store online logs. Some servers provide virus and spyware protection, and features like that can significantly increase your online safety.

Using a no-logs VPN service will provide you with a higher degree of security. It can protect you from blanket government surveillance and prevent your internet service provider from knowing your online activity.

Using a VPN for Netflix and other forbidden treasures

Online streaming services like Netflix and Hulu have been making it difficult for foreign users to access their content in other countries. Many people can get around region restrictions by using a VPN service to route your traffic through another country.

It can be quite simple to watch Netflix and other restricted goodies. You’ll have to use a VPN service that allows you to get a unique IP address. This can often be available for an additional fee. Look for VPN services that offer a “dedicated IP address”, “dedicated IP”, or “static IP.” Additional features like these will always allow you to access content from Netflix through a VPN service.

This is by far the easiest way to access your forbidden apps since there’s no specific way to block VPN traffic.

A lot of people started using a VPN to evade geo-restrictions. But despite its forbidden benefits to users outside the US, a VPN is a great tool that can protect you and enhance your online experience over the internet by providing you with sufficient security and privacy. When it comes to selecting the best VPN, you have plenty of choices. There are many cost-effective VPN options, and all of them will vary in monthly offerings. Choosing the best VPN is easier once you narrow down the competition. The best indication of a good VPN service provider is that they have the right security and the right support in place for you.

Got a question for our Security community? Head over to the CNET Forums and join the conversation.  

Read More:

The Best Password Managers

The Best Identity Monitoring Services

The Best Web Hosting Providers

Comments Internet Services Digital Media Notification on Notification off Symantec

Is Houses Roof Ready For Hurricane Season?

The day begins early enough, up at 5:30am, shower, dress, and breakfast on the porch at 6am good. Breakfast is the same everyday; oatmeal, fresh bread, (fetched from across very busy street), and delicious sliced fresh fruit from the area outdoor market. The weather? Well, it’s going staying another hot one, at the very least over 100 degrees higher humidity. The sky is gray and overcast, not the clouds, but from smoke, and exhaust created your immense number of traffic moving through the chaotic streets, burning trash, and the wood burning stoves of street venders preparing meals for time.

Sections with the roof with broken paint layer must be painted immediately, without hoping for the next general tone. For painting the roof uses a special dye for slate.

Last summer on a hot night in Adams Morgan, I waited in line with my friends to are involved in The Reef, one of Amo’s biggest and most widely played bars. With summery attractions such an extensive roof deck, (not to mention the fabulous aquatic decor) the line stretched along the block. The bouncer at the door had notified the riff-raff that after you was indeed at capacity and would certainly be going “1 in – 1 out”.

Making superb of however removable permits you to more easily turn the pile over, to help speed practice. It also allows you merely metal roof B Deck Supplier add recycleables to build the pile, or to eliminate the finished compost. Otherwise, you have to be shoveling and reaching over walls.

Self storage units can are offered in a variety of sizes in which accommodate almost everything you be required to store. When you’ve got a few small considerations to store, an inferior room might be the answer. If you have had appliances or simply furniture to store, a wider storage room might be the answer. The most prevalent size of the self storage space is ten feet by five ft. One of the largest is twenty by twenty feet. Each of these rooms can be different simply by what usually are very well built via. Some rooms are concrete, while could be metal decking. Some of these storage rooms have windows while other people are completely solid with a door for access. Some rooms will have climate control features that allow you heat and funky the room to protect your important things.

Luckily, professional pressure washing services could get rid involving most that strengthen. That way, you can relax knowing your house will be look the same as the day it was built.

In the end, the durability of metal just what makes it such a dependable building physical. The low-maintenance material will withstand most anything nature throws at it, that makes it one with the best roofing options approximately.

How To Verify YouTube Account – Here Is How

There are several ways which you can go about in order to learn how to confirm account. As an example, if you want to discover how to verify a YouTube account, the best method is to utilize a service which can help you with this purpose. However, not all of these providers will offer this type of service. This is the reason it will be a good idea to make sure that you are able to find a service to use. Among the greatest ways to find a service that can help you find out how to verify YouTube account is to use search engines. That Google is such a well recognized and well-known search engine firm will be a terrific help to you when it comes to looking to utilize.

You can find a number of guidebooks and tutorials on the internet that will help you learn how to verify account. As an example, if you are unable to utilize search engines to find the appropriate service, you could always try using guides. These tutorial guides will allow you to find out by using some how to verify YouTube accounts. A number of the best guides will show you how to use the support so as to conserve energy and time.

If you utilize manuals you will be able to discover how to confirm account easily and very fast. Since the majority of these tutorial guides may be used to be able to open or download the documents you will have to learn how to verify YouTube account, you will have the ability to keep yourself from having to download the support in order to be able to get the instructions on how best to verify YouTube account. You should also bear in mind that many of these tutorial guides will require you to make sure that you can understand the instructions before you use them.

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Meubles Put Chambre À Coucher

Les “ENSEMBLES CHAMBRE A COUCHER” que nous vous présentons, sont des chambres adultes complétes. L’une des pièces dans lesquelles nous utilisons les bancs de lighted surtout sont les Chambres à coucher, autant devant du pied de lit ou posé devant le mur en fonctionnant comme il se trouve que banquette de pied puisque sobre cette façon couvre la fonction d’assis ou comme endroit put poser nos vêtements pendant una nuit. Chez Interior’s nous l’avons compris et c’est pourquoi nous vous proposons du mobilier en bois massif de performance, aux nombreux styles et style pour aménager votre chambre à coucher.

N’oublions pas d’autres options, telles la cual des lits en bois intemporels ultimes ou des lits sobre métal bohème. Faites sobre votre salon la pièce maîtresse de votre maison en optant pour notre sélection de meubles de salon. Mobilier complet put la chambre à coucher. Pour passer des nuits réparatrices dans votre chambre à coucher, la décoration et les meubles sobre la chambre sont essentiels.

De y compris, si vous voulez créer un décor harmonieux, où les meubles sont assortis les uns aux autres, il est possible de opter pour une chambre à coucher complète. Chambre adulte tendance comprenant: un lit, une commode, un chevet et une armoires. Si vous préférez un style moins design, laissez-vous assez tenter par nos meubles sobre bois et aux finitions in addition sobres.

Principalement, en décorant notre chambre à coucher, nous pouvons choisir kklk tables de chevet en l’ensemble des adaptant au style de em lits et têtes de lighted, en cherchant une coordination parfaite avec le style de notre chambre, des tables au design moderne, mesitas clásicas, rustiques ainsi que classiques, style industriel ou classic, ou bien vous pouvez renforcer the contraste, en mélangeant les designs (tendance actuelle pour la décoration au style vintage ou cheap chic).

Sur boutique décoration montréal Beltrán, nous posons à votre disposition votre grande variété de banquettes faites avec des matériaux différentes etant donné que les Banquettes en bois ainsi que Bancs en fer forgé, idéals comme des meubles d’appoint qui s’adaptent à votre style décoratif, telles des bancs de lits modernes, banquettes au style colonial, classiques ou aussi des Banquettes revêtues au style vintage et patchwork.

Your provider might be throttling your internet. Here’s how to check

id=”article-body” class=”row” section=”article-body”> Tyler Lizenby/CNET There’s little more infuriating than a Netflix show stuttering and stopping right at the climax thanks to bad Wi-Fi. The collective groans, the held breath as loading stalls at 99%, 우리카지노쿠폰 the children crying for Moana to come back: all of these could be avoided if the internet just stayed steady. But alas, steady internet is rarely our reality, and in many areas, internet service provider options are too limited to solve the problem.

What’s worse, with last year’s Supreme Court decision to decline to hear an appeal on net neutrality, ISPs can still throttle your internet, limiting your broadband if you’re streaming more YouTube or Hulu than they want, and providing slower connections to websites owned by their competitors. Luckily, there’s a solution to some of these problems: the virtual private network. Basically, ISPs need to see your IP address to slow down your internet, and a good VPN will shield that identity. Here’s how to find one and use it to check whether your ISP is artificially slowing down your internet.

Step 1

Test your internet health

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET You can measure the health of your internet in a number of ways, but I would suggest starting out with a simple test through M-Lab. This will check your connection speed, essentially gauging whether your ISP is providing consistent performance no matter the content you’re accessing. This measurement isn’t perfect, but it’s a good starting place.

Step 2

Find a reliable VPN

Norton If you’ve done a basic first test on your internet health, and you still think something may be awry with your ISP, start researching VPNs. There are dozens of reasons to get one, and just as many factors to take into account while searching for the best virtual private network, such as security, price and server locations. Luckily, we’ve done that work for you already. Check out our suggestions here: CNET’s picks for best VPNs.

Step 3

Compare your speed with the VPN.

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET Next, test your internet speed somewhere like or Compare the results to the same test when your VPN is active. The use of any VPN should cut your speed considerably, so the speed tests should show a discrepancy, with the VPN-active speed notably slower than the VPN-inactive speed. But a VPN also hides the IP address that providers use to identify you, so if your speed test with the VPN is faster than without the VPN, that may mean your ISP is targeting your IP address for throttling.

Step 4

Fix your internet

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET OK, this is the hard part. Even if you find out your provider is throttling your internet, there may not be much you can actually do. Many people in the US live in regions with ISP monopolies or duopolies, so you might not be able to find a better provider. But here are a few useful responses:

If you do have options, use the best provider in your area. Measurement Lab provides a good resource for finding info specific to your region, 더킹카지노쿠폰 and 우리카지노계열 that can guide you to a more reliable ISP.

Use your VPN to maintain more consistent speeds. A VPN can’t solve a bad connection or other reasons behind your slow service, but it can mitigate throttling from unscrupulous ISPs.

Call your provider and threaten to switch providers if they don’t stop throttling your internet. This might seem old fashioned, and I can’t guarantee lasting results, but providers have responded positively to such tactics when I’ve used them.

Originally published Feb. 8, 8:00 a.m. EST.

Correction, Feb. 10: This article previously misattributed last year’s net neutrality ruling to the Supreme Court, rather than the DC Circuit Court that decided the case. The Supreme Court declined to hear the appeal. The article has been corrected.

Update, Feb. 12: 우리계열카지노총판 A few readers reported issues with one speed testing link, so we have replaced it with another verified test.

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